|Acoustics of baroque, classical and modern flutes|
Acoustic and Fingering Schematic
to acoustic impedance
This uses an explicit cross-fingering: the RH 3rd finger closes a hole downstream of the first open one (under RH 2nd). It is more strongly cross-fingered than the (implicitly cross-fingered) E4, because now two downstream holes are closed (RH 3rd and the key).
The extent of the standing wave beyond an open hole increases with the frequency, especially for small holes. This has the effect of making the effective length of the flute increase with frequency. As a result, the minima at higher frequencies are flatter than strict harmonic ratios. Only the first two minima are in harmonic ratios (f, 2f). The first of these is used for F4, but not here. As a result, there is no support for the second harmonic of F5. Thus this is a darker timbre than those of the notes on either side. For more detail on cross fingering see that section in the introduction to flute acoustics, or download a brief scientific report on cross fingerings.
Sound spectrum of a baroque flute played using fingering for F5.
You can hear F5 played by Matthew Ridley.
|Acoustic measurements are available for these flutes -
modern B, modern C, classical C, classical D, classical flared, baroque
Sound clips are available for modern B, classical flared and baroque
|To compare flutes, it is easiest to open a separate browser window for each instrument.|