Acoustics of baroque, classical and modern flutes

modern flute
C foot


Music Acoustics UNSW

modern B modern C classical C classical D classical flared baroque B3
C4 C#4 D4 D#4 E4 F4 F#4 G4 G#4 A4 A#4 B4
C5 C#5 D5 D#5 E5 F5 F#5 G5 G#5 A5 A#5 B5
C6 C#6 D6 D#6 E6 F6 F#6 G6 G#6 A6 A#6 B6
C7 C#7 D7 D#7 E7 F7 F#7 multiphonics


a key depressed
a key not depressed
a part of the mechanism that is not normally touched
Details in fingering legend.

Acoustic schematic
a closed tone hole
an open tone hole

Non-specialist introduction to acoustic impedance
Non-specialist introduction to flute acoustics

Impedance spectrum of a modern flute with a C foot measured at the embouchure hole using fingering for D6. Z is plotted in dB, i.e. 20 log(Z/Pa.s.m-3).

This fingering is comparable to that for G4 except for the open register hole. This creates a pressure node (or flow antinode) about two thirds of the way along the pipe, and thus allows D6 but not G4 or G5. Comparing this with the G4 impedance spectrum, we see that the third minimum is little changed. The second is shallower and unplayable. The first minimum plays C5 but, because it is a cross fingering for this note, its timbre is darker. Both C5 & D6 may be played simultaneously as a multiphonic.

The Virtual Boehm Flute may suggest other fingerings for this note.
Fingering legend
How were these results obtained?
Acoustic measurements are available for these flutes -
modern B, modern C, classical C, classical D, classical flared, baroque
Sound clips are available for modern B, classical flared and baroque
To compare flutes, it is easiest to open a separate browser window for each instrument.

Copyright © Academic Press. JSV+ Joe Wolfe, John Smith, John Tann and Neville H. Fletcher, Acoustics of baroque, classical and modern flutes
Revised to include the baroque flute 2001.